To protect Bimini’s great hammerheads, we need to know where they go. With the help of a network of receivers, Tristan, director of the Bimini Biological Field Station, is recording and studying the movements of this shark and other species around the island.
I grew up near the shore of Lake Erie surrounded by the farmlands of Ohio, where my father, an outdoorsman, introduced me to freshwater fishing at a young age. When I was seven I saw my first shark resting against the glass between my wide eyes and its enclosure at the Shedd Aquarium. I was hooked. After earning a BSc from Bowling Green State University in Ohio, I trekked to the Pacific Northwest to survey mountain streams for salmon habitat in the Cascades. In 2002 I travelled to The Bahamas to volunteer with the Bimini Biological Field Station Foundation (BBFSF)...
Having been born in Davos and grown up in Frutigen in Switzerland, I am used to seeing the snowy summits of the Swiss Alps. Despite growing up in the mountains, however, I have always had a strong interest in sharks and their environment. When I was asked by my kindergarten teacher what I wanted to do when I grow up, I told her that I wanted to study sharks. At the time, many people in Switzerland would have frowned at this, but now, nearly 20 years later, I am sitting in Bimini and the mountain summits have been replaced by...
The goal of the Bimini Biological Field Station Foundation is to advance knowledge of the biology of sharks and rays, and the role that they play in the marine ecosystem, and to improve their management and conservation as well as enhance public perception and understanding of these fishes.
Adequate conservation and management of shark populations is becoming increasingly important on a global scale with declines documented worldwide. A recent study estimated the total catch and fishing-related mortality for sharks globally was more than 100,000,000 sharks per year. There is an urgent need for the collection of biological information on many shark species, which the Bimini Biological Field Station Foundation aims to address.
The following background information relates to two of our objectives that show the diversity of projects that the Bimini Biological Field Station Foundation conducts. One is pertinent to management and conservation of large coastal sharks, specifically the great hammerhead, and the other harnesses the lemon shark as a model species for advancing behavioural theory and understanding individual variation.
Great hammerhead: a crucial need for spatial data
The great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran is a target or by-catch species in a wide variety of fisheries throughout its range, and substantial population declines are suspected to have occurred in many areas as a result of fishing. The great hammerhead in particular is highly sought after in the international shark fin trade because of its large fins. It has also been added to CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) Appendix II and is categorised as Endangered by the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) Red List.
A real conundrum for fisheries across the globe is how to reduce capture of hammerheads? Prohibiting retention would not be effective as they have the highest at vessel mortality of any species (about 90%). Thus it is crucial that we understand more about space, habitat use and behaviour of this species. Do they use migratory corridors? Are there spatial hotspots?
Consequences and cause of personality
Personality differences are widespread throughout the animal kingdom and represent individual behavioural variations that are consistent over time. They determine the way animals react to novel and challenging situations, which can affect resource acquisition, social interaction, survival and reproduction. Personalities have been well studied in freshwater fish. However, despite important ecological and evolutionary consequences, nothing is known about personality variation in sharks and other large marine fishes. Personality variation in apex predators, such as sharks, could have implications for the health of marine ecosystems. The attributes of the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris system in Bimini allow a range of questions to be explored that cannot be asked of many other wild-ranging animal species. Such as, is personality heritable? How do mortality and growth of juvenile sharks correspond to behavioural types or syndromes? Does this correspondence change over ontogeny and ecological conditions?
The aims and objectives of the projects that the Bimini Biological Field Station Foundation conducts are to:
Samuel, better known as Doc, has been studying sharks for 50 years. He discovered how sharks see and even gave us insights into how they think. He founded the Bimini Biological Field Station in 1990, and has been training and inspiring young shark researchers ever since.