In the 1970s, Nigel discovered a treasure trove of sharks and rays that were using the Casamance estuary in Senegal as a nursery ground. He also found an abundance of sawfishes. More than 40 years on and every indication is that the sawfishes in the region are all but extinct. Nigel is going back to find out if those indicators are right.
I suspect that I am somewhat of a curiosity compared to the normal recipient of an SOSF grant. Firstly, at the age of 65 I am probably older than most, although hopefully not the oldest! Secondly, I am no longer a full-time research scientist. And thirdly, I am resurrecting aspects of a project that consumed me more than 40 years ago when I was a young PhD student. Working at the Durban Aquarium between school and university, I quickly cottoned on to the fact that I liked sharks, and that to become a field biologist was my thing. I also...
To assess the feasibility of carrying out a longer term (3 – 4 month) sampling program of specific areas of the Casamance River to establish the likelihood of the continued presence of the smalltooth sawfish.
It is widely recognised that species of the genus Pristis are critically endangered over much of their former range. Indeed, in some areas they may be locally extinct (1). The smalltooth sawfish used to be common in the Casamance River system, at least up until the mid- 1970s (2). The current challenge is to find out whether they still exist there, and if so to mobilise local conservation measures to ensure their future protection. There is added pressure now because elasmobranchs have become a targeted fishery in the Casamance.
In 1974/1975 Nigel Downing established the presence of a healthy population of Pristis pectinata in the lower reaches of the Casamance River. His objectives were to locate, collect and maintain in captivity about 20 juvenile sawfish for use in experimental work. The goal was to discover how euryhaline elasmobranchs regulate their ionic and osmotic balance when moving from fresh to sea water and vice-versa. As a consequence the Nigel discovered the location of an abundant supply of newly born P. pectinata that were using the Casamance River as a nursery ground. Curiously, few sawfish, juvenile or otherwise, were seen at fish landing sites on the river. Nigel also established that the Gambia River (about 120km to the north) was used as a juvenile nursery area for the largetooth sawfish Pristis pristis (Leeney R. H. & Downing N. 2015. Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosystem.), although the ecology of the two species was quite different.
In 2014, Ruth Leeney surveyed the Gambia River, in the Gambia, by interviewing fishermen, to establish whether Pristis still existed there. The conclusion was that it is likely to be locally extinct. I consider that the most thorough approach to establish whether P. pectinata still exists in the Casamance is to set up a sampling program in the river that targets juveniles in the same locations where they existed in the mid-1970s, and at the same time of year. This application is for funds to rapidly assess the feasibility of setting up and running the sampling program.
Annual encounters with the four sawfish species found in Bangladesh are reported to have been declining drastically over the past five years. Alifa is training local fishers to help map where these Critically Endangered species were found and what habitat is essential for their survival today.
The smalltooth sawfish populations that once spread from Texas to North Carolina have vanished, except for a small reserve in south Florida. However, it seems that protection measures in recent years might be helping these sawfish to recover. Tonya is searching for clues in Tampa Bay, the first place where recovering sawfish populations would extend their range north.