Project

Community-supported conservation goals for Scalloped Hammerhead

Species
  • Sharks
Years funded
  • 2021
Status
  • Active
Project types
  • Conservation
  • Education
  • Research
Affiliation
  • University of Trinidad and Tobago
Description

Kelly is hoping to identify areas that baby hammerhead sharks prefer and possibly use as nurseries so that she can help develop management plans to protect these havens. Young scalloped hammerhead sharks are caught in alarming numbers at certain times of the year off the Caribbean island of Trinidad, where murky waters mean lots of nutrients and abundant marine life. The team will spend their time catching sharks to age, sex, measure, and tag them before taking a genetic sample and releasing them. They will track movement patterns, site fidelity, growth rates, home ranges, and mortality rates of the species.

Community-supported conservation goals for Scalloped Hammerhead

Kelly Kingon

Project leader
About the project leader

As an assistant professor at the University of Trinidad and Tobago, I have been doing research in the Caribbean on threatened and introduced marine fish, coastal habitats (including seagrasses, coral reefs and mangroves) and their associated fauna, and reef fish health for the past seven years. Prior to this I worked on similar projects in the Gulf of Mexico and the north-western Atlantic for Florida State University and several state agencies in Florida. Combined, I have almost 20 years of experience working on fish in the central western Atlantic region. My interest in sharks began during a course at...

PROJECT LOCATION : Trinidad and Tobago
Project details

Collaborating with locals to assess Scalloped Hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) nurseries and develop community-supported conservation goals

Key objective

To identify the location of nursery areas for scalloped hammerheads around the island of Trinidad and understand their characteristics and temporal usage so proper management measures can be developed, and to determine how these nurseries contribute to the local and regional population to understand the broader implications of the fishery.

Why is this important

Scalloped hammerheads are considered critically endangered globally and yet an intense fishery for them exists in Trinidad that primarily targets young-of-year and small juveniles. Juveniles are also caught as bycatch in gillnets targeting other fisheries species. If juveniles are not allowed to reach maturity and reproduce before they are harvested it has dire implications for sustaining and rebuilding populations, especially for a species with low reproductive rates and on the verge of extinction.

Background

Scalloped hammerhead’s life history pattern of late maturity, few offspring, and long gestation in combination with fishers targeting them for their fins and/or meat, and high occurrences of bycatch mortality has led them to be classified as globally critically endangered. The central and southwestern Atlantic is considered a distinct population segment for Scalloped hammerheads and contains MesoAmerica, South America and the Caribbean (including Trinidad and Tobago), but data are deficient concerning fine scale habitat use, local reproductive potential and connectivity within and between population segments.  Shark nurseries are areas where juvenile sharks are more common than in other areas, remain or return to for extended periods of time, and revisit year after year. Nurseries can also be characterized as areas where pupping occurs and where pups spend their first few months to years of life. As pups grow nursery areas may shift in location, leading to potential secondary nurseries. Because small juvenile Scalloped hammerheads are frequently landed in coastal waters of Trinidad, we suspect nursery areas exist around here and will work to identify those specific locations. Our preliminary results show juvenile Scalloped hammerhead half siblings caught across years in Trinidad, indicating likely female philopatry to specific nursery areas but these findings are only based on few individuals. Preliminary analyses also show Trinidad as genetically distinct from Belize but more fine-scale data are required to understand connectivity between Trinidad and its neighbouring countries. Fishing and habitat alteration of nursery areas can have profound effects on population persistence; a problem exacerbated if females return to specific nursery areas year after year. Knowledge of shark nursery habitats and connectivity has informed management decisions in other areas and the results of this study will help guide conservation measures in Trinidad and Tobago for this critically endangered species.

Aims & objectives

The aim of this project is to gain knowledge about Scalloped Hammerhead nurseries in Trinidad’s nearshore waters. These data and local ecological knowledge on this species will be used to help conserve and rebuild the local population.  We plan to achieve the following objectives:

  • Identify major nursery areas for Scalloped Hammerheads around Trinidad
  • Determine pupping times and seasonality of nursery grounds
  • Assess the connectivity among nurseries within Trinidad and between Trinidad and the wider region
  • Examine the patterns of habitat use and site fidelity, as well as estimate the relative number of adults contributing to progeny at nursery sites
  • Develop management strategies that involve and are supported by local stakeholders to conserve juveniles while ensuring livelihoods are maintained