Sofia is driven by a passion for deep-sea sharks and aims to produce a fishing handling protocol for deep-sea fishermen in Portugal’s southern Mediterranean and Atlantic waters. She developed the DELASMOP project to assess the condition and survival of elasmobranchs caught in fisheries in the North-Eastern Atlantic. Sofia collects vital information about the fishing vessels while aboard deep-sea crustacean trawlers, and also samples the sharks brought in as bycatch. She tags them before release to assess their survival rates, and collects tissue samples to understand their diet, to assess if there is overlap between shark feeding grounds and fishing areas.
I grew up in Rio de Janeiro, one of the most dangerous cities in the world, but the sea was where I always felt safe. As a child I used to watch Jacques Cousteau documentaries with my grandmother and I remember being very drawn to the ocean, but I had no concept that it could provide a career for a city girl. It was only when I was in my late teens, with no idea of which career path I wanted to follow, that something ‘clicked’ while I was watching a documentary, and I ended up chasing my childhood dreams...
DELASMOP aims at contributing to the conservation of deep-sea elasmobranchs (DSE) by developing a guide with the best fishing procedures and handling practices on board, to decrease the number of DSE caught in crustacean bottom-trawl fisheries while increasing their survival chances after release.
Portugal is the leading country in Europe on seafood consumption (57 kg/person/year), and the South-Southwest coasts are the most important areas for crustacean bottom-trawlers. Unfortunately, the estimated deep-sea elasmobranch (DSE) bycatch in these fisheries is 40%. Although current European legislation requires mandatory discards of most DSE, it is unclear their survival after discarding. This is of great concern since 44% of DSE in Europe are either endangered or lacking basic ecological and biological information.
The targeted fishing of deep-sea elasmobranchs (DSE), sharks and skates, is prohibited in Europe, but they are still heavily caught incidentally and discarded, especially in the crustacean bottom-trawler fishery (CBT). In Portugal, CBT can have up to 80% of incidental catch and DSE represents 40%. This is of great concern because DSE are amongst the most vulnerable organisms due to increased pressure and decreased temperatures with depth, leading to slower growth rates. This means that overfishing can happen at a higher pace than for other shallow-water species because they simply cannot repopulate quickly after they are overfished. Thus, overexploitation may have profound consequences for some species not only locally, but also globally because some DSE are migratory. Estimating their immediate mortality rates and post-release mortality after being discarded is important because it precludes establishing sound management measures, although, this type of information is costly, technically difficult to obtain and vary greatly among fisheries, habitats, seasons, type of gear, environment, etc. For that reason, the available estimates are disparate and limited to a few numbers of species and fisheries. For instance, for longline fisheries, the immediate mortality rates can vary from 0-100% for DSE, whilst the post-release mortality can be as high as 83% after only 24h of release due to sub-lethal effects. Likewise, data on the overlap of elasmobranchs and fisheries is also difficult to obtain and scarce. In a recent study with pelagic sharks, it was demonstrated that there is an 80% overlap between sharks’ habitats and fishing areas since sharks select and aggregate in areas with high productivity which are also targeted by longliners. Thus, it is likely that DSE will also occupy habitats based on food availability, and as the CBT operates at increasing depths to maximize catches for revenue, the overlap should also occur.
Demian’s team is developing tools that help border control officers identify illegal shark products. His project is sifting through ‘rhino ray’ DNA sequences looking for differences in code between the guitarfishes, giant guitarfishes and wedgefishes nicknamed for their pointy snouts (and Endangered status). Months of testing will help ensure only rhino ray DNA is targeted before the team flies to Hong Kong to help officials use a portable DNA tester. This project will add to the arsenal currently being used to identify illegal shark fins moving across borders, and help stop the trafficking of ‘rhino ray’ fins.
Aristide created a citizen science platform and mobile app for fishers across Cameroon’s 400 km coastline to record sightings of sharks, rays and marine life. These photos are uploaded to iNaturalist where they are identified and will serve to create Cameroon’s first elasmobranch atlas. Together with his team, Aristide ensures data are being uploaded, visits fish landing sites to assess bycatch and measure sharks, and scours the beaches to check for strandings and sea turtle nests. He collects tissue samples of threatened species in these visits that can give more insights into the diversity, population size and structure of vulnerable sharks.
Ali is collaborating with researchers across North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean to develop support tools for guitarfish conservation. As an advocate, much of her work is completed behind a computer and locked in meetings, but her goal is to help bring awareness to the threatened status of guitarfish in the Mediterranean. The current Director of Conservation for the Shark Trust, Ali represents a large number of regional partners to engage with governments, develop new resources and coordinate guitarfish conservation activities.