We know very little about the sharks of the deep. Paul has embarked on two expeditions to the stormy and remote reaches of the Indian Ocean to bring the mysteries of these underwater aliens to the surface.
The general aim of this study is to survey deep-sea elasmobranch fauna in the by-catch of a deep-sea commercial trawler during an extended three-month expedition to remote and relatively unexplored regions in the Southern Indian Ocean.
Recent surveys of unexplored seamounts in the Southern Indian Ocean have yielded species of shark previously unknown to science. These areas are increasingly being targeted by commercial deep-sea fisheries. As species discovery is the first step in conservation, it is crucial to identify, document and understand these species to be able to manage them.
The deep sea of the Southern Indian Ocean is one of the world’s last unexplored regions, remaining virtually unstudied by science. The high productivity of the Southern Indian Ocean is attributed to steeply sloped seamounts. These topographical features appear to be hotspots of biodiversity.
Deep-sea elasmobranchs exhibit low fecundity and reproduce slowly. As upper trophic predators of seamount ecosystems, these slow-reproducing deep-water sharks are vulnerable to the over-exploitation affecting the unique endemic fauna of isolated seamount communities. The past two decades have seen the development of a commercial deep-sea fishery focused on seamounts in remote marine environments of the Southern Indian Ocean. Little is known about the ecology of these remote and understudied seamount ecosystems or how commercial fishing impacts their population structure, community dynamics and trophic interactions.
After sampling just 36 seamounts, the 2012 survey showed that Southern Indian Ocean seamount ecosystems are habitats of rare and undescribed deep-sea sharks. Since species varied between each isolated seamount, the seven undescribed species are likely to be just the tip of the iceberg with regard to new species discovery in the region. The 2014 expedition holds the promise for more shark discoveries.
The aims and objectives of this project are to:
Although Albania has an extensive coastline, very little is known about the country’s elasmobranchs. Rigers will collect catch data from fishers and aquaculture workers and encourage authorities to protect these vulnerable species. He will also engage with coastal communities to sensitise them to the plight of Albania’s sharks.
Mafia Island off the coast of Tanzania is a marine paradise, but an increasing human population is putting the creatures of the sea under pressure. Dried ray meat forms part of the local diet and Patroba will investigate the fishery’s impact on local livelihoods and environmental sustainability.
Very little is known about the seafood industry in Guatemala, especially when it comes to sharks and rays, but at certain times of year the demand for shark products is high. Ana will use DNA testing to find out which elasmobranchs are being consumed and how often.